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Following O'Neill's defeat in 1603 and his subsequent flight to the Continent, the Crown commenced the large-scale plantation of Ulster with English; Scottish Presbyterians soon followed.During the seventeenth century Ireland, continuing its steady decline, came increasingly under England's rule.Though home rule was finally passed in 1914, it was deferred because of the onset of World War I.
While the rest of Europe was swiftly declining into the Dark Ages, Irish monasteries—preserving the Greek and Latin of the ancient world—not only became great centers of learning, but also sent many famous missionaries to the Continent.
The Catholic Emancipation Act followed in 1829 chiefly due to the activities of the Irish politician Daniel O'Connell.
During the 1830s and 1840s a new nationalist movement, Young Ireland, arose.
About 95 percent of the Republic's population is Roman Catholic; most of the rest are Protestant.
Over 25 percent of Northern Ireland's population is Roman Catholic; about 23 percent is Presbyterian; about 18 percent belong to the Church of Ireland; the rest are members of other churches or of no stated denomination. Patrick came to Ireland and introduced the Gaels to Christianity.